"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed."

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COMM. STANDARDS

Several bands and modes are available that will meet the above criteria. UHF-High Band / VHF-Low Band and the Freeband.
UHF-High Band UHF is strictly limited range, line of sight communications better suited for the urbanenvironment. UHF signals
penetrate buildings and metal clutter well, but the signal is attenuated or absorbed by dense folliage and heavy terrain.

BAND AND EQUIPMENT OVERVIEW

1. FRS

Most groups are familiar with or use Family Radio Service equipment. FRS has 14 UHF channels, a maximum output of .5 watt,
a fixed (non-removeable antenna) and a very limited real world range of about 1.5 miles. FRS radios only use is for clear, simple
to use communications within a team. They have very limted range, No privacy and being FM are very easily DF-ed. The so called
"privacy codes" aren't. All they do is limit YOUR ability to hear others on the same freq. near you. Also, don't waste your money on
encrypted units. Most use simple speech inversion circuitry which will confuse the basic moron; but wont slow down a smart 12 year
old with access to common gear laying around the house. If "da man" is within range...encryption  ain't gonna help you anyway.
2. GMRS
A better UHF solution for urban ops is the General Mobile Radio Service. GMRS has 23 FM channels (7 of which are compatable with FRS).
The first 8 channels are for base/mobile/HT simplex use: 462.550,.575, .600, .625, .650, .675 (Emergency Channel), .700, and .725.
There are 8 freqs. in the 467.000 mhz band that are for repeater input use only. Next, there are 7 interstitial channels located
between the regular GMRS freqs. that are compatable with the first 7 FRS freqs. these are: 462.5625,.5875, 6125,.6375, .6625, .6875 and .7125.
Equipment is available with up to 50 watts output for up to 25 mile range. Most HT's have 15 channels with a 2 watt output. Range is
approximately 5 miles. Midland currently offers a mil. spec. HT with all 23 channels and 2 watts erp. Other companies are offering HTs
with up to 5 watts erp, 15 channels plus NOAA weather scan. Prices are around $150. For increased range, All of these HT's can be
upgraded with 1/2 wave 2.5 db gain whip antennas. For mobile operation, mag mount antennas are available with up to 5 db gain.
To set up a GMRS network for your AO that has approx. 6-15 mile coverage; take a 5 watt HT with a speaker mike and connect it toan
outdoor antenna mounted 20-30 feet high. Use the best low loss 50 ohm coax you can find such as LMR-400. Keep the cable run
50 feet or less. For general coverage in all directions use a omnidirectional vertical such as a J-pole or one of the readily available
commercial antennas. To increase your range further, and for a little more comsec, take a 10db gain 440mhz 4- element beam, cut it
down for1.1 swr on the GMRS band and turn it with a tv rotor. You could also build this antenna out of rigid copper pipe for almost nothing.
The FCC demands that you pay a $75 tax (license) to operate on GMRS. They readily admit that the purpose of the tax is to
"catch scofflaws" who owe child support or the IRS. Due to the short range nature of GMRS, enforcement of the rules has been
rather lax. Anyone can buy a GMRS rig and most are tossing the paperwork in the trash. No one will check to see if you have a
liscense unless you interfer with another liscensed operator. So, NEVER interfer with a frequency when it is in use or another operator.Also,
the FCC issues a callsign with each new liscense. It is a 3 by 4 call that should be very familiar to the old Class D CB
operators. A GMRS call will look like this: KFW- 1234. So, if you don't have a call...make one up.BE aware that the FRS/GMRS frequencys
are in the same band used by local, State and Federal law enforement agencys and that they can monitor your commo in split second.

E-MAIL

For issuing SITREPS, SALUTE reports, announcements etc. All sensitive or mission critical information should be encrypted by the most
secure means available. Sworn unit members are advised which to use.

TELEPHONE TREE S.O.P.

Summary:
1.  C/O notifies Team Leaders
2.  Team Leaders notify team members
3.  Team Leaders report status back to C/O Detailed Procedure:

Plan A. Notify Team Leaders
The decision to activate the telephone tree is made by the C/O, X/O or other Command Staff.
They will contact the TEAM Leaders and advise them of:
1.  The nature of the emergency
2.  Any special instructions
3.  The telephone number and or frequency where TL's can report back the status of their teams to the C/O.
If any TL's can't be reached backups will be called.

B. Notify Team Members
Each Team Leader will then notify all the individual members of his team; advising them of:
1.  The nature of the emergency
2.  Any special instructions
3.  Requisites them to monitor the ERPN, their State Net and the
Local Emergency Frequency for further instructions and SitReps.

ALERT LEVELS:

Level 1 "RED" (Highest alert rating)
Incident In Progress: Nationwide Comm. Network in operation and monitored 24/7. Local and State Nets activated.
Emergency Deployment Plan activated and All units mobilized.

Level 2 "YELLOW" (Credible Threat)
Rapid Alert System activated and all Local, State and Nationwide nets in "open mode" operation 24/7.
All units at pre-assigned locations and awaiting further orders.

Level 3 (Potential Threat)
All equipment packed and ready to go. All members stay in daily contact with Team Leaders via the
Local Radio Network. Local Nets make weekly contact with the State Net. Monitor ERPN on schedule.

Level 4 (Minimal Threat)
All equipment available. Members maintain standard contact with Team Leaders through the weekly Local Radio Net.

Level 5 (Standby)
All members monitor shortwave, ERPN and local freqs. for developing situations.

MESSAGE FORMAT:

CALL...Give call sign of the station you are attempting to contact. Then, your call sign. After the Net Control Station acknowledges
you may proceed with your message. Transmit information in the following order:
PRECEDENCE---Routine, Priority or Emergency

TIME---Followed by date-time group IE: 012302-1830

FROM---Followed  by call sign of person sending message if different from that of the sender. TO...The person or unit the
message is for..."BREAK"

Text of message---Encode  and limit to 25 words if possible. Use the D.E.S., Brevity Code, SitRep and
Salute format per MilComm SOP.

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